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Posts Tagged ‘Michelle-Marie Heinemann’

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What dresses we will wear this summer? The trends for Summer 2018 suggest various styles, colors and patterns. With a constant thread: a nostalgic penchant for vintage styles. Like the pretty 50s style dresses  worn by  Saoirse Ronan in Brooklyn, or the patterns sported by  Duchess Sarah Ferguson in the 80s. A strong-hued déjà-vu with a few pastel tones.

Of course, there are also more innovative styles that play with patchwork and layering, but the apron and baby doll dresses will be all the rage on the beach and in town. See in the gallery a selection of the best summer dresses spotted on the runway and follow our smart guide to choose the dress that will suit you best:

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  • The patterned summer dress, patchwork styles featuring different layered panels and patterns for a vibrant look. Try an oversized and light style also for work
  • The check & plaid mania: not just for winter, as seen at Prada, where models wore ample pinafore dresses over polo shirts or lightweight blouses. A perfect multi-layered ensembleto flaunt come Spring.
  • The oversized, lightweight dress. Perfect for those who are looking for comfort without sacrificing glamour.
  • The shirtdress: a totally versatile garment, especially in classic white. It’s like a white canvas you can personalize with accessories.
  • The floral dress: leave in your closet tropical prints and embrace botanical patterns. Pastel hued micro florals are back.
  • The polka dot dress: in our opinion it’s the must-have piece for this Summer
  • The baby doll dress: from Chanel to Emporio Armani to John Galliano, many designers offered romantic mini dressesin lace, satin and tweed, perfect for a ‘Lolita’ lows
  • The sequined dress: a go-anywhere and go-to piece for the Summer, see the long style from Attico in lavender tones, or the short cocktail dresses from Alcoolique and Halpern

 

Trends for Summer 2018

 

 

 

 

Written By: Selene Olivia

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The tacro is the latest foodie trend to take over Instagram.

Vive La Tarte debuted the part-taco, part-croissant creation in January. The San Francisco bakery offers three version of the tacro: pulled pork with pineapple, chicken with avocado, and barbecue jackfruit.

 

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The bakery’s creative director, Jimmy Houghton, explained how the tacro was born in an interview with SF Gate published Friday.

“We took our regular croissant dough that we make and we tried to fill it with pulled pork or with chicken, and we found that the flavors didn’t combine well. The pastry was way too rich, way too buttery, way too sweet,” Houghton told the site. “We went back to the drawing board and we said it needs to be saltier, needs to be a bit more savory.”

A Vive La Tarte spokesperson told BuzzFeed the bakery will likely add more flavors, “including a potential breakfast version.”

Food mashup crazes have been constant since New York City’s Dominique Ansel Bakery created the uber-popular Cronut, a croissant-doughnut, in 2013. San Francisco responded with the cruffin, a croissant-muffin, in 2015. Now the Bay Area also has the tacro.

 It may be a bit late for West Coast foodies to celebrate Tuesday’s National Croissant Day, but fortunately Taco Tuesday comes around every week.
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Written By: Carolina Moreno
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Discover Good Food’s hottest trends in food and drink for 2018, including meat-free burgers, alcohol-free spirits and more innovative ways to eat healthy.

Over the last year, we’ve seen a wide range of food and drink trends reflecting changing attitudes towards health, community and the environment. We’ve seen a brunch boom, buddha bowls aplenty and of course, the avocado craze.

It seems 2018 is set to be a year of even more adventurous veggie and vegan cuisine while the rise of hyper-local cooking and exciting advances in technology take a firmer hold on British food culture. Wondering what to expect from the future of food and drink? Check out the BBC Good Food team’s predictions for the coming year.

1. Gut-friendly food

With fermenting, pickling and preserving reaching the mainstream, our panel agree that gut health is set to be a big food trend for 2018. This includes probiotics like kimchi, miso and kefir and prebiotics such as onions, garlic and other alliums.

 

Pickles in jar

2. Booze-free beverages

Good Food columnist Tony Naylor cites non-alcoholic drinks as a growth area in the food and drink industry, and our supermarket forecasters say that health-conscious millennials are drinking booze less and less. Premium tonic waters with interesting flavours, non-alcoholic ‘spirits’ and botanical mixes are flooding in to fill a gap in the market.

 

Rhubarb cordial

 

3. Hawaiian food

Poke bowls are everyday food in Hawaii – essentially sushi without the fussy presentation. Still relatively hard to find, even in London, next year they will likely cross over into the mainstream. These bowls are endlessly customisable and can be economical, too.

 

Poke bowl

4. Timut pepper

We love exploring new seasonings and we’re not afraid of hot spices. Timut pepper, from Nepal, is spiky, zesty – surprisingly grapefruity – and leaves a tingly residual heat on the palate. It’s also been tipped by sous-chef.co.uk and supermarket giant Asda as being the next big condiment for 2018.

 

5 ways with gin and tonic

5. Specialised tea

Good news for fans of a cuppa – tea is even more popular than before. Sales of herbal and green tea, in particular, continue to rise for consumption at home, so it’s likely that the small number of tea ‘bars’ that we’ve seen popping up may also start to proliferate on the high street. People are beginning to think of tea with the same reverence as coffee for its many varieties.

 

Jasmine & ginger festive tea

6. Hyper-local food

In the UK and many other countries now, there is a growing trend for dishes created with ingredients sourced within walking distance. One of the figureheads for this movement is Danish chef René Redzepi who is doing just that at his two-Michelin-starred Copenhagen restaurant Noma. Tony Naylor observes that at home, too, there are more and more “restaurants are applying a Redzepi-like sense of localism to their ingredients”.

 

Foraging for apples

 

7. Heme

Not available to buy yet, heme – pronounced ‘heem’ (from the Greek word for ‘blood’) – is at the cutting edge of food science, and is a possible stepping stone to more environmentally sustainable meat alternatives. Tech-food start-up Impossible Foods are already using it to bring a meaty quality to their plant-based burger including, yes, the bloodiness of meat cooked rare.

 

Impossible burger

8. Plant-based protein

With more and more chefs embracing ingredients such as tofu, tempeh and quinoa, veganism is on the rise. Food blogger Angry Chef  talks about redefined Indian cuisine (rich with pulses) as a growing trend, with restaurants taking dishes back to their plant-based roots with originality and mass appeal. There’ll be more meat-free days in 2018.

 

Avocado burrito bowl

 

9. Everyday food tech

Having recently purchased Whole Foods, Amazon is now competing with a clutch of smaller outfits who specialise in delivering recipe kits to home chefs, which means an emerging trend is set to become even bigger. Tying in with this, the development of smart fridges will take the hassle out of ordering ingredients by snapping ‘shelfies’ of your food to keep you well-stocked. We can also look forward to more voice-operated gadgets such as Google Home and Alexa to record and order your shopping lists.

 

Food tech

10. South American cuisines

Mexican, Peruvian and Brazilian food along with Japanese-Mexican fusion could well be big this year. ‘Arepas’ [pronounced ‘uh-rey-puhs’, which are corn pizzas-cum-muffins], chicha [‘chee-chuh’, a fermented maize drink] and chulpe corn [‘chool-puh’, used to make snacks] will be prevalent,’ says Georgina Lunn, Product Development Manager at Sainsbury’s. Quinoa and chia seeds have peaked, but purple potatoes, white and purple corn, black quinoa and kiwicha seeds are on the up.

 

Purple potatoes on yellow wooden board

11. Foreign farming in Britain

Luke Farrell from Dorset’s Ryewater Nursery, who has encyclopedic knowledge of Malaysian and Sichuan cuisines, is harvesting rare Asian plant varieties like som saa and pandan (Nigella reckons the latter is the avocado of 2018). Meanwhile, there’s sustainably farmed British tilapia in east London (growup.org.uk), with the waste produced used as fertiliser to grow veg. British farmers are even producing txuleton (pronounced chuleton), the Galician old ox or dairy beef that foodies go wild for.

 

Pandan in serving dish with shaved coconut

 

12. The fourth meal

Brunch, brinner, lunch… are you confused too? Now, we have a fourth meal to contend with. ‘We’ve been watching the fourth meal for months,’ says Jonathan Moore, Waitrose’s executive chef. ‘We’re eating differently. We have breakfast for dinner, dinner for lunch – everything is less structured. The fourth is the final meal, which is normally a treat.’ So, four meals a day – if you have the appetite for it!

 

Two bowls with noodles, broth and meal on bamboo mat with chopsticks

13. Nootropics

The health-conscious will be consuming nootropics – that’s brain food, to you and me – according to trends prediction agency Pearlfisher. Gut health is still a major focus but cognition may now start to take over. Look out for turmeric, salmon, eggs, dandelion greens and jícama (Mexican yam).

 

Bowl of turmeric powder

14. Craft butter

Grant Harrington, of Butter Culture, is elevating the humble yellow block. After a year of research into dairy fermentation, when he built a cabin on a farm in Oxfordshire, the ex-Fäviken chef started supplying butter locally. Now, his rich, buttercup-hued fat, heaped with naturally occurring diacetyl acid – the stuff that makes butter buttery – is omnipresent. Diners are eulogising it in restaurants from Sat Bains in Nottingham to London’s Bibendum.

 

Butter block on knife

15. West African cuisine

Zoe Adjonyoh’s recent cookbook, Zoe’s Ghana Kitchen, about growing up eating grilled tilapia and gingery Scotch bonnet stew, has been influential. Thanks to her, ‘there is scope to show customers how to use different spices,’ says M&S’s Head of Food Product Direction and Innovation, Cathy Chapman. Additionally, Yeo Valley is releasing a limited-edition baobab and vanilla yogurt.

 

Spicy rice in serving dish with spoon on board with peppers

 

 

Written By: BBC Good Food team

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E665TT Baltimore George Peabody Library one of the most beautiful famous libraries in the world.

Correctly submitting all the different pieces of your college application is like a test — one you can easily pass. While the process may seem complicated, a little organization and attention go a long way.Image result for college application

Start early and beat the deadline.

Getting Organized

You can apply to colleges online or through the mail. Online applications can be processed quickly and may have built-in checks to ensure all materials are included. Mailed applications are easier to proofread. Either way, following this advice will set you up to succeed.

Start early. Set deadlines for completing essays, collecting recommendations and filling out forms a few weeks before they’re actually required. Mark these earlier deadlines on your calendar and don’t miss them. College websites are the best place to find accurate deadline information.

Be consistent. Using the exact same name on all your forms makes things easier for admission officers. Decide if you want to use a shortened version of your legal name or your middle name, and then always use the same version. Switching names — going from Bill to Billy, for example — increases the odds that your materials will get misfiled.

Be careful. Careless mistakes on your application can hurt your chances of getting accepted. After you finish an application, put it aside for a day and then check it over for errors. If you can, have a teacher or parent proofread it as well. Save and review online applications before you submit them.

Alert your school. You need to let school officials know which colleges you’re applying to so they can send along your transcripts. The people you ask to write recommendation letters also need to know where you’re applying if they’re mailing the letters themselves.

Completing the Package

Once you’ve completed your application, follow these tips to make sure all the parts get where they’re going.

Don’t wait. Anything that needs to be mailed, including your application itself, should be sent in several weeks before it is due. This allows time for delivery and processing. Online materials should be sent weeks before the deadline as well.

Submit once. When yImage result for college applicationou apply online, you’ll usually get an automated response saying your materials have been received. If you don’t, contact the college’s admission office. Don’t apply online again or mail in another application.

Keep copies. Make a copy of each piece of each application. Save personal identification numbers, passwords, canceled checks and notes or emails from admission officers. This documentation can save you if a problem arises.

Get confirmation. If you mail applications, put a stamped postcard addressed to your house in each package so admission officers can let you know that your materials arrived. The U.S. Post Office also offers a similar “return receipt” service. It may take a few weeks for confirmation cards to reach you.

If you get a notice saying something is missing, don’t panic. Just call the admission office and calmly ask what steps you can take. This is why you wisely saved copies of everything and sent in your application early!

 

 

 

 

 

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What is blockchain technology?

For the past several weeks, you’ve likely heard some of the following terms if you’ve paid attention to the world of finance: Cryptocurrency, Blockchain, Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, and Ethereum. But what do they mean? And why is cryptocurrency suddenly so hot?Bitcoin and Blockchain Financing Trend

First, we’ll explain the blockchain basics.

As society become increasingly digital, financial services providers are looking to offer customers the same services to which they’re accustomed, but in a more efficient, secure, and cost effective way.

Enter blockchain technology.

The origins of blockchain are a bit nebulous. A person or group of people known by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakomoto invented and released the tech in 2009 as a way to digitally and anonymously send payments between two parties without needing a third party to verify the transaction. It was initially designed to facilitate, authorize, and log the transfer of bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies.

How does blockchain technology work?

Blockchain tech is actually rather easy to understand at its core. Essentially, it’s a shared database populated with entries that must be confirmed and encrypted. Think of it as a kind of highly encrypted and verified shared Google Document, in which each entry in the sheet depends on a logical relationship to all its predecessors. Blockchain tech offers a way to securely and efficiently create a tamper-proof log of sensitive activity (anything from international money transfers to shareholder records).

Blockchain’s conceptual framework and underlying code is useful for a variety of financial processes because of the potential it has to give companies a secure, digital alternative to banking processes that are typically bureaucratic, time-consuming, paper-heavy, and expensive.

 

FILE PHOTO: Bitcoin (virtual currency) coins are seen in an illustration picture taken at La Maison du Bitcoin in Paris, France, May 27, 2015. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier/File Photo

What are cryptocurrencies?

Cryptocurrencies are essentially just digital money, digital tools of exchange that use cryptography and the aforementioned blockchain technology to facilitate secure and anonymous transactions. There had been several iterations of cryptocurrency over the years, but Bitcoin truly thrust cryptocurrencies forward in the late 2000s. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies floating out on the market now, but Bitcoin is far and away the most popular.

How do you mine cryptocurrency?

Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies don’t just fall out of the sky. Like any other form of money, it takes work to produce them. And that work comes in the form of mining.

But let’s take a step back. Satoshi Nakamoto, the founder of Bitcoin, ensured that there would ever only be 21 million Bitcoins in existence. He (or they) reached that figure by calculating that people would discover, or “mine,” a certain number of blocks of transactions each day.

Every four years, the number of Bitcoins released in relation to the previous cycle gets reduced by 50%, along with the reward to miners for discovering new blocks. At the moment, that reward is 12.5 Bitcoins. Therefore, the total number of Bitcoins in circulation will approach 21 million but never actually reach that figure. This means Bitcoin will never experience inflation. The downside here is that a hack or cyberattack could be a disaster because it could erase Bitcoin wallets with little hope of getting the value back.

As for mining Bitcoins, the process requires electrical energy. Miners solve complex mathematical problems, and the reward is more Bitcoins generated and awarded to them. Miners also verify transactions and prevent fraud, so more miners equals faster, more reliable, and more secure transactions.

Thanks to Satoshi Nakamoto’s designs, Bitcoin mining becomes more difficult as more miners join the fray. In 2009, a miner could mine 200 Bitcoin in a matter of days. In 2014, it would take approximately 98 years to mine just one, according to 99Bitcoins.

Super powerful computers called Application Specific Integrated Circuit, or ASIC, were developed specifically to mine Bitcoins. But because so many miners have joined in the last few years, it remains difficult to mine loads. The solution is mining pools, groups of miners who band together and are paid relative to their share of the work.

Blockchains in Commercial Production at Scale

Current & future uses of blockchain technology & cryptocurrency

Since its inception, Bitcoin has been rather volatile. But based on its recent boom — and a forecast by Snapchat’s first investor, Jeremy Liew, that it would hit $500,000 by 2030 — and the prospect of grabbing a slice of the Bitcoin pie becomes far more attractive.

Bitcoin users expect 94% of all bitcoins to be released by 2024. As the number moves toward the ceiling of 21 million, many expect the profits miners once made from the creation of new blocks to become so low that they will become negligible. But as more bitcoins enter circulation, transaction fees could rise and offset this.

As for blockchain technology itself, it has numerous applications, from banking to the Internet of Things. In the next few years, BI Intelligence expects companies to flesh out their blockchain IoT solutions. Blockchain is a promising tool that will transform parts of the IoT and enable solutions that provide greater insight into assets, operations, and supply chains. It will also transform how health records and connected medical devices store and transmit data.

Blockchain won’t be usable everywhere, but in many cases, it will be a part of the solution that makes the best use of the tools in the IoT arsenal. Blockchain can help to address particular problems, improve workflows, and reduce costs, which are the ultimate goals of any IoT project.

 

 

Written By: Andrew Meola

 

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NEW YORK (Reuters) – Bitcoin dropped to a more than four-month low on Friday, continuing a downtrend after more negative headlines such as Japan’s financial regulator ordering six digital currency exchanges to make improvements on their anti-money laundering systems. The original virtual currency fell as low as $6,085.59 (£4,589) BTC=BTSP on Bitstamp, the lowest since early February and not far from this year’s trough of just below $6,000. It was last down more than 8 percent at $6,177.45.  So far in 2018, bitcoin has fallen nearly 56 percent, after soaring more than 1,300 percent last year. The order from Japan’s Financial Services Agency on Friday includes bitFlyer, Inc, one of the country’s largest cryptocurrency exchanges. Early this week, the cryptocurrency world was racked by news South Korean cryptocurrency exchange Bithumb was hacked of 35 billion won ($31.5 million) worth of virtual coins.

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The Bithumb attack was preceded earlier this month by a “cyber intrusion” at Coinrail, a relatively small cryptocurrency exchange in South Korea, causing a loss of about 30 percent of the coins traded on the exchange.

“Often swings in prices are blamed on events like hacks of crypto exchanges, or news from regulators,” said Chris Tse, founding director of the Cardstack project in New York, which is leading efforts to create a new blockchain-based internet.

Blockchain, the system powering cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, is a shared database that is maintained by a network of computers connected to the internet.

 

Tse noted that bitcoin, even before these recent events, has been in a bearish momentum.

“If the crypto market were a NASCAR race – there would be a yellow caution flag waving right now. There was massive exuberance, then a massive crash, and now we’re cleaning up the debris and figuring out what’s going on,” Tse said.

Other digital currencies also declined in sympathy with bitcoin on Friday. Ethereum, the second-largest cryptocurrency by market value, was down nearly 10 percent at $472.99 ETH=BTSP.

The third-largest, Ripple, lost 7 percent to $0.49 according to cryptocurrency price tracker coinmarketcap.com.

In a recent report explaining the slowdown in the market, Fundstrat Global Advisors managing partner Thomas Lee said there have not been sufficient inflows into the cryptocurrency space this year.

 

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“Incremental retail and institutional demand was expected to materialise in 2018, but regulatory actions by the SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) have impaired progress,” Lee said.

“The SEC has taken needed steps in 2018, targeting ICO (initial coin offerings) scams, but the uncertainty around which projects are securities versus commodities has created substantial uncertainty,” he added.

 

Reporting By: Gertrude Chavez-Dreyfuss; Editing By: Frances Kerry

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The market is undergoing continuous decline today after the overall market cap dropped $16 billion in 24 hours.

Bitcoin is down 8 percent and dropped from $6,700 earlier today now trading at under $6,200 with $6,000 being considered an important line of support

Meanwhile, Ethereum is down 10 percent and EOS is down over 15 percent. Litecoin has hit a 7 month low of $75, dropping 11 percent.

Market analysts and pundits have offered a variety of views on the subject, with the possibility that news from Japan has influenced the decline. Japan’s Financial Service Agency issued 6 exchanges with business improvement orders after conducting on-site inspections.

The national regulator is seen as cracking down on the exchanges by many after declaring that the exchanges needed to improve KYC regulations and work towards reducing risk. Major exchange bitFlyer responded by voluntarily announcing that they would no longer be accepting new customers pending review of their operational practices. bitFlyer will also be reviewing current identifications of existing users as part of the anti-money laundering measures.

 

 

Ryan Rabaglia, head trader of crypto-firm Octagon Strategy Limited, said:

“The market is still trading on low volumes and has yet to break out of its current downtrend, leaving itself susceptible to sell-offs. Although the market reacted negatively, I view this as a positive for the industry as a whole.”

On Monday, Blue Line Futures president Bill Baruch said that Bitcoin’s decreased volatility signaled that selling may finally be exhausted and may be bottoming out at around $6,000. He attributed the huge surge in value seen in December with the introduction of CME and CBOE Bitcoin futures allowing people to take long and short positions on the value of Bitcoin, with “tremendous speculation and the fear of missing out” seeing prices “sky-rocket too quickly.”

Baruch feels that the over-enthusiasm that caused unsustainable growth has now died down, which can now contribute to healthier and more natural market growth, saying that if the $6,000 support line holds we may see more constructive upward movement. He also pointed out, however, that the 100-day moving average was down to $4,550 at the time. Baruch outlined the $10,000 mark as a “crucial line in the sand”, and even advised selling against it.

It’s possible that the decline will continue in the short term as traders seek to preserve holdings, with eyes now on the $6,000 mark as a measurement of how far the decline will go before finding support and consolidating once again.

 

 

Written By: Conor Maloney

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The cryptocurrency market has recorded a loss of over $17 billion in the past 24 hours, triggered by the loss of major cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, and EOS.

EOS recorded the largest loss amongst major digital assets, demonstrating a loss of more than 10 percent overnight. Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, Stellar, and Cardano fell behind EOS, falling by just over 7 percent.

What Triggered the Sell-Off?

On previous reports, CCN noted that the cryptocurrency market is still in a bear cycle and that it had only initiated a corrective rally, not a bull rally. In mid-June, the market seemed more stable than any other period throughout the past two months. But, the unforeseen hacking attack of Bithumb, South Korea’s largest cryptocurrency exchange, terminated the corrective rally of the market and led major cryptocurrencies to a short-term decline.

Prior to the Bithumb hack, the cryptocurrency market had shown significant momentum, as Bitcoin rebounded from $6,300 to $6,700. But, the breach of the most widely utilized digital asset trading platform in South Korea, the third biggest cryptocurrency market behind the US and Japan, led investors to panic, even though the outcome was not particularly detrimental.

On June 21, CCN reported that Bithumb confirmed $30 million was stolen from its hot wallet and has started to cooperate with the Korea Internet and Security Agency, a sub organization of the Ministry of Science and ICT, to minimize its losses. The Bithumb team stated that the $30 million figure could decrease in the future, as KISA and Bithumb security experts initiate various recovery efforts.

“After the incident occured on June 20, Bithumb quickly followed the procedure to immediately report [the] incident to KISA announcing that about 35 billion Korean Won worth amount of cryptocurrency was stolen. However, as we undergo recovery process on each cryptocurrency, the overall scale of damage is getting reduced. Hence, we expect that the overall damage will be less than the amount we initially expected,” the Bithumb team said.

Bithumb also confirmed that with company funds, valued around $450 million, the exchange will be able compensate its investors fully with ease, as the stolen amount only accounted for around 6 percent of company funds.

Hence, the end result of the Bithumb security breach was not detrimental to the point of triggering a 6 percent cryptocurrency market correction. Rather, it was the end of an optimistic short-term corrective rally triggered by Bithumb that led the cryptocurrency market to experience a minor correction.

Where Ethereum Goes Next

Ethereum experienced the biggest loss amongst major cryptocurrencies today alongside EOS, and given that smaller cryptocurrencies and tokens follow the trend of BTC and ETH, the short-term trend of ETH is important to observe.

Various momentum indicators indicate neutral zone for ETH. The Relative Strength Index (RSI) of ETH is at 40.5 and the MACD of ETH is demonstrating a buy signal. But, a neutral signal for ETH, in a strong downward trend, could mean that its decline could be prolonged to the higher end of the $400 region, from the current price of ETH at $503.

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Written By: Joseph Young

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The excavation of the Aztec spiritual center, the Templo Mayor, by archaeologist Eduardo Matos Moctezuma provided otherwise unknowable information about the religion and society of the post-classical Mesoamerican empire.

The excavation of the Aztec spiritual center, the Templo Mayor, by archaeologist Eduardo Matos Moctezuma provided otherwise unknowable information about the religion and society of the post-classical Mesoamerican empire.

Prominent Mexican archaeologist Eduardo Matos Moctezuma on April 10 will deliver the first lecture on campus in the series that bears his name and honors his contributions to archaeology. The title is “Eduardo Matos Moctezuma Discovers Himself: Excavations of the Great Aztec Temple,” and the public talk will take place at 6 p.m. at the Geological Lecture Hall, 24 Oxford St.

Matos Moctezuma directed the excavation of the main Aztec site known as Templo Mayor in the late ’70s. His work unveiled major aspects of Aztec religion, life, and society to the world.

The five-year Eduardo Matos Moctezuma Lecture Series is a collaboration among the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, the Moses Mesoamerican Archive, and Harvard Divinity School.

Below is an interview with Matos Moctezuma, first published in the Gazette last year, in which he talked about the Aztecs and his breakthrough work. The interview is translated from the original Spanish.

Q&A

Eduardo Matos Moctezuma

GAZETTE: All ancient cultures have creation myths. What was the Aztecs’?

MATOS MOCTEZUMA: They believed they came from a place called Aztlan, hence the name Aztecs. Some experts think Aztlan is a myth because it has yet to be discovered. According to the myth, they left Aztlan guided by one of their gods until they arrived in the Texcoco Lake, in what’s now Mexico City, where they founded Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire, in the year 1325.

GAZETTE: But how did the Aztec empire really originate? 

MATOS MOCTEZUMA: Mexico is a country with an ancient history that goes back 20,000 years. Before the Aztecs, there were the cultures of Teotihuacan, Monte Alban, Palenque, and Tajin. But the Aztecs, also called Mexicas, emerged in the 14th century when they freed themselves from their former masters, the Azcapotzalcos, after forming an alliance with the Texcocos and Tacubas. They began a large expansion across what is now Mexico and Mesoamerica through wars. It is said that when the Spaniards arrived in the early 16th century, the Aztecs ruled over 370 small city-states that paid tribute in goods to Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire.

GAZETTE: The Aztec culture has been described as fierce and bloodthirsty. What were the Aztecs really like?

MATOS MOCTEZUMA: The Aztec was fundamentally a culture based on war and agriculture. Their two most important deities were Huitzilopochtli, the god of war, and Tlaloc, the god of rain. The duality of war and agriculture was crucial for the Aztec economy. The Aztecs expanded their empire through military conquest and sustained it through tributes imposed on the conquered regions. Every 80 days, the new subjects of the Aztecs had to pay tributes to Tenochtitlan. As for the Aztec society, it was very complex. It was socially divided between the nobility and the populace. The nobles included the ruler, the priests, and the military, all of whom had privileges and didn’t pay taxes. The poorer people had to work as painters, poets, sculptors, peasants, doctors, or architects. They attended schools to learn their trades and received military training to be prepared for wars. They also attended schools to learn about religion, music, and their language, the Nahuatl, which we know because they left codices with pictograms and texts that told their history. When the Spaniards came, Tenochtitlan had approximately 200,000 people. It was one of the world’s largest cities in the 16th century. The Aztecs were one of the world’s greatest civilizations.

GAZETTE: How do you compare the Aztecs to other great ancient civilizations, such as the Mayas, the Incas, the Chinese, or the Egyptians?

MATOS MOCTEZUMA:According to experts, there are six large regions in the world that are the cradles of civilization. Those regions are Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, the Indus Valley, Mesoamerica, and the Andes, where people developed civilizations independently, boasting large cities and strong states. In Mesoamerica, it was the Aztecs and the Mayas but also the Zapotecas, Mixtecas, Toltecas, etc., and in the Andes, the Incas, but also the Moche, Chimu, Chavin, and others. The Aztec was a strong state due to its military power, its religion, and its tribute system. They developed their own calendar of 18 months of 20 days each, built large cities and huge pyramids and temples, and developed a farming system called chinampas that they used to grow crops on shallow lake beds. They grew maize, beans, tomatoes, pumpkins, chilis, etc. The Aztecs’ contributions to the modern world are extensive, from agricultural products to farming techniques to stunning art and architecture.

GAZETTE: Let’s talk about the Aztec religion. Much has been said about the role of human sacrifice among Aztecs. What is the truth about human sacrifices?

MATOS MOCTEZUMA: The Aztec religion was primarily polytheist. They had different gods, male and female. The sun god was Tonatiuh. There were many deities, and they were revered in monthly festivities with rich offerings. There is this black legend that only the Aztecs used human sacrifices in their religious rituals, when there is evidence that they existed in many other ancient cultures that were mostly agricultural societies. In the Aztecs’ case, human sacrifices were meant to please the sun god so that he could continue providing them with light, warmth, and life. They believed that without human sacrifices, the sun could stop and everything was going to die. So the sun had to be fed so that it could continue with its movement, so that there would be day and night. But not all rituals demanded human sacrifices. In general, those who were sacrificed were slaves or prisoners of war.

GAZETTE: What factors contributed to the fall of the Aztec empire?

MATOS MOCTEZUMA: Before the arrival of the Spaniards, there were nine emperors, and during the war of conquest, two more. During the last 18 years of the Aztec empire, the ruler was Moctezuma II. In those years, the empire continued its expansion through war, but exacting tribute from their subjects created discontent among them. There were small rebellions, but the Aztecs, who had the military power, always won. When the Spaniards landed in 1519 in what is today Veracruz, the local people there, the Totonacas, complained to conquistador Hernan Cortes that they were subjugated by Moctezuma, the señor of Tenochtitlan. When Cortes heard this, he promised that they would be freed from paying tribute if they become their allies to overthrow Moctezuma. With their help, Cortes gained more allies among other disgruntled groups in the region, and he planned the advance towards Tenochtitlan. There is a myth about the question of how 800 Spaniards defeated a whole empire. Well, it wasn’t only 800 Spaniards. They were supported by thousands of indigenous people who wanted to get rid of Aztec rule. When the conquest happened, when Tenochtitlan was about to fall, surrounded by land and sea, those groups of local enemies of the Aztecs played a fundamental role in the fall of the Aztec empire. Also, the Aztecs used a tactic that worked against them. Unlike the Spaniards who came to kill, the Aztecs preferred to take prisoners of war for human sacrifices. The Aztecs captured Cortes, and they didn’t kill him because they were going to sacrifice him. But his comrades saved him. Moctezuma was taken prisoner and was killed by the Spaniards.

GAZETTE: Are you a descendant of Moctezuma, the Aztec emperor?

MATOS MOCTEZUMA: There are not too many who have that last name in Mexico. According to my mom, we are descendants of Moctezuma. But I am not sure, and I don’t care too much about it.

GAZETTE: You spent 40 years, a large part of your career as an archaeologist, excavating the remains of the Templo Mayor. What was the significance of the Templo Mayor for the Aztecs?

MATOS MOCTEZUMA: The Templo Mayor was the center of the ancient Aztec empire, the most sacred place for the Aztecs. In 2014, we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Templo Mayor. In 1914, Manuel Gamio found remains that led him to believe that the site was the Templo Mayor, which until then we had only heard about. But the site was in the middle of the city; it was actually underneath Mexico City. Years went by, and in 1978 electrical workers who were excavating underground found a big sculpture, which turned out to be a monolith depicting an Aztec goddess, which led to the discovery of the Templo Mayor. The same year, the Templo Mayor Project was founded, with me as the director, and under my helm and with a multidisciplinary team, we started excavations and were able to find a large part of the remains of the religious heart of the Aztecs. Excavations are still taking place, and, as in the past, we’re excavating the ritual heart of the Aztec empire, which we had only heard of before. After we dug up the remains of the temple, we were able to learn the role of the Templo Mayor in Aztecs’ life and the powerful symbolism it held in the empire. 

GAZETTE: What is left to learn about the Aztecs?

MATOS MOCTEZUMA: We’ve just scratched the surface of Tenochtitlan, the capital, but we still need to know how it was organized, the social hierarchies, and the way it functioned. Since it’s underneath the city, there is a lot still to be learned.

 

 

Written By: Liz Mineo

Harvard Staff Writer

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Over the past several years, Harvard Art Museums has acquired hundreds of printer’s proofs of work by celebrated artists, photojournalists, and fashion photographers, in a boon for Harvard holdings of contemporary art. Some of that rich collection is now on display.

“Analog Culture: Printer’s Proofs from the Schneider/Erdman Photography Lab, 1981–2001” features approximately 90 black-and-white images from the Manhattan lab of Gary Schneider, an artist, photographer, and master printer, and John Erdman, an artist and expert retoucher.

On view through Aug. 12, the exhibit explores the dynamic exchange between artist and printer, the methods and materials used in printmaking, and the social forces that helped shape New York and the nation in the 1980s and ’90s. (The lab closed in 2001.)

“For me that range is what really makes the collection significant,” said the show’s curator, Jennifer Quick, Harvard’s John R. and Barbara Robinson Family Associate Research Curator in Photography. “It’s the granular, material history of photography, and the big broader social histories that it documents.”

 

David Wojnarowicz, Untitled (Buffalo), 1988–89.

“Untitled (Buffalo),” David Wojnarowicz, 1988–89, printed 1992.  © The Estate of David Wojnarowicz

One of the most haunting images on display is a photograph printed for the American artist and AIDS activist David Wojnarowicz, who died from the disease in 1992 at the age of 37. For many, Wojnarowicz’s shot of buffalo plunging off a cliff — a picture of a diorama he snapped at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington — reflected not just the horror of the AIDS crisis but also the nation’s early apathy toward victims of the disease. The band U2 used the picture as cover art for the single “One,” donating sales to AIDS research.

In an interview, Schneider, a filmmaker and photographer by training, said that the choice of a “very bright” French paper called Brilliant helped render Wojnarowicz’s image “holographic.”

Becoming a printer was a natural progression for Schneider, who took a job in a photo lab to help him get through grad school at the Pratt Institute in the late 1970s and soon fell in love with darkroom work. Later, at the urging of a friend, he and Erdman, his partner, began printing works for other artists in their apartment in St. Mark’s Place. The spare bedroom doubled as a darkroom; the living room quickly filled with racks of drying prints. Eventually they moved to a studio in Cooper Square.

Gary Schneider and John Erdman at Harvard Art Museums exhibit.

Gary Schneider (left) and John Erdman with some of their iconic prints on view at Harvard Art Museums through Aug. 12.  Rose Lincoln/Harvard Staff Photographer

 

Erdman managed the books, but as the business grew, he also developed into a skilled retoucher. The shop became a regular stop for a who’s who of the East Village art scene. Famed portrait photographer Richard Avedon enlisted Schneider and Erdman to print a set of Beatles images. Madonna sought their expertise for her “Sex” coffee table book, a project that involved nondisclosure agreements and a range of creative voices. Nan Goldin, Peter Hujar, Lisette Model, and James Casebere, among many other noted artists, were regulars.

 

Peter Hujar, John Erdman and Gary Schneider at Mohonk Mountain House, 1984.

Peter Hujar, John Erdman, and Gary Schneider at Mohonk Mountain House, 1984, printed 2013.  © Peter Hujar Archive

 

Through the years, Schneider’s own gift with the camera helped inform how he translated an artist’s negative to a finished print. He likened his work to a kind of performance in which he channeled the ideas of others, using his experience and creative eye to develop options for clients whom he insisted arrive prepared.

“If they didn’t have a vision for the work I wasn’t going to create one for them,” he said. “I couldn’t.”

What he could do was deliver “a number of choices or alternatives,” by selecting the right combinations of paper, ink, toner, and developer, and by deciding how long to expose a work to enhance shadows or highlights.

“Even when I am dealing with a student, it’s their voice that I am looking to reveal to them,” said Schneider. “With an artist, it’s their desire that I’m searching for.”

The printing process is about “how far can I actually catalyze that artist’s voice or that artist’s desire rather than my own,” he said.

 

Lisette Model, Fashion Show, Hotel Pierre, 1940–46, printed 1982.
Nan Goldin, Naomi in the audience, Boston, 1973, printed 1990–91.

“Fashion Show, Hotel Pierre,” Lisette Model, 1940–46, printed 1982; “Naomi in the audience, Boston,” Nan Goldin, 1973, printed 1990–91.  © The Lisette Model Estate/Bruce Silverstein Gallery; © Nan Goldin

Peter Hujar, Will, 1985, printed 1987.

“Will,” Peter Hujar, 1985, printed 1987. © Peter Hujar Archive

Archival material, books, and an Irene Bayer photo from Schneider and Erdman’s personal collection are part of the exhibit, along with key darkroom items such as test prints, a light valve technology negative, and “masks” — material used to cover an area of a print to limit its exposure time. All help shine a light on Schneider and Erdman’s process.

Ensuring the collection would be housed at an institution devoted to teaching and learning was key for the pair, who led various demonstrations and discussions with Harvard students in the months before the exhibition.

“We always viewed the collection as a study collection,” said Erdman, who accompanied Schneider to Harvard in 2004 for the installation of “Gary Schneider: Portraits.”

It was during that visit that they were struck by the Fogg Art Museum’s Agnes Mongan Center for the Study of Prints, Drawings, and Photographs, and its commitment to teaching. “We fantasized about [our collection] coming here,” said Erdman.

 

 

Written By: Colleen Walsh